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Efficacy of New Zeolite-Based Hemostatic Gauze in a Gunshot Model of Junctional Femoral Artery Hemorrhage in Swine

  • Author Footnotes
    1 These authors contributed equally to this study.
    Jing Wang
    Footnotes
    1 These authors contributed equally to this study.
    Affiliations
    Department of Emergency, The First Medical Center to Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing, China
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 These authors contributed equally to this study.
    Hongliang Zhang
    Footnotes
    1 These authors contributed equally to this study.
    Affiliations
    Department of Emergency, The First Medical Center to Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing, China
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    1 These authors contributed equally to this study.
    Junkang Wang
    Footnotes
    1 These authors contributed equally to this study.
    Affiliations
    Department of Emergency, The First Medical Center to Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing, China
    Search for articles by this author
  • Fei Pan
    Affiliations
    Department of Emergency, The First Medical Center to Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing, China
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  • Heng Zhang
    Affiliations
    Department of Emergency, The First Medical Center to Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing, China
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  • Junpeng Luo
    Affiliations
    Department of Minimal Invasive Intervention, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, China

    Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China
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  • Chenyu Guo
    Affiliations
    Department of Emergency, The First Medical Center to Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing, China
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  • Kaiyuan Li
    Affiliations
    Department of Emergency, The First Medical Center to Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing, China
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  • Tanshi Li
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author. Department of Emergency, The First Medical Center to Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital, No.28, Fu Xing Road, Beijing 100853, China. Tel.: +8601066937224; fax: 01066887329.
    Affiliations
    Department of Emergency, The First Medical Center to Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing, China
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    1 These authors contributed equally to this study.
Published:March 03, 2021DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2020.12.040

      Abstract

      Background

      This work sought to (1) establish a reliable gunshot model of junctional femoral artery rupture in swine that accurately simulates field rescue conditions and (2) use the gunshot model to compare the efficacy and ease of application of zeolite nanometer hemostatic gauze with other hemostatic materials.

      Methods

      Thirty-six healthy landrace swine (body weight 50 ± 5 kg) were randomly divided into three groups which were treated with Combat Gauze (CG), FeiChuang hemostatic gauze (FG), or standard medical gauze (SG). A gunshot model of femoral artery hemorrhage in landrace swine was used with portable ultrasound to accurately position the wound. After the shooting, when mean arterial pressure of swine decreased by at least 30% for 10 s, wounds were pressed with standard packing (39 g) of gauze materials for 3 min to stop bleeding, then bandaged with pressure. Blood samples were taken 15 min before injury, then 10 min, 30 min, and 60 min after injury to determine hemodynamic, coagulation, and arterial blood gas indexes. Wound temperatures were taken at 5 min, 10 min, 30 min, and 60 min after injury, and survival times were recorded. The volume of blood loss and survival time were used to evaluate hemostatic effect, whereas the fill time, wound temperature, and physiological indexes were used to evaluate the safety and operation of the product.

      Results

      The CG (11.15 ± 3.09 mL/kg) and FG (12.19 ± 3.5 mL/kg) groups had significantly less blood loss than the SG group (16.8 ± 5.14 mL/kg) (P = 0.04; P = 0.039, respectively). After gauze packing, bleeding in CG (5.85 ± 1.17 mL/kg) and FG (5.37 ± 0.93 mL/kg) groups remained significantly lower than that of the SG group (6.93 ± 1.03 mL/kg) (P = 0.011; P = 0.003, respectively). Wound temperature rose with time for all groups (P < 0.001). The wound temperatures in the FG group and the CG group were significantly higher than that of the SG group (P = 004 and 0.009, respectively). Survival rates and times were not significantly different among the three groups, although the FG group had the longest average survival time (standard deviation [SD] 204.8 s), compared with the SG group (SD 177.8 s) and CG (SD 187.5 s) groups. No significant differences in hemodynamics, blood gas, and coagulation were observed among the three groups.

      Conclusions

      The gunshot model of junctional femoral arterial hemorrhage guided by ultrasound had high accuracy for femoral arterial rupture by bullet wound and provided consistent and reproducible field-simulation conditions for comparison of hemostatic materials. FeiChuang zeolite hemostatic gauze effectively controlled bleeding as well as combat gauze, without excessive heat as found in other zeolite-based products. However, improvements to application technique, such as a packing device, are needed to improve operating time.

      Keywords

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