Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor/Receptor Blocker, Diuretic, or Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug Use After Major Surgery and Acute Kidney Injury: A Case-Control Study

Published:February 22, 2021DOI:



      Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common after surgery and associated with increased mortality, costs, and lengths of hospitalization. We examined associations between angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI)/angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), diuretic, or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use after major surgery and AKI.

      Materials and methods

      We conducted a nested case-control study of patients who underwent major cardiac, thoracic, general, or vascular surgery in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Cases with AKI were matched on age, gender, and surgery type with up to five controls without AKI within 30-d after surgery. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for AKI were determined based on postoperative administration of ACEIs/ARBs, diuretics, or NSAIDs.


      Among 33,648 patients in the cohort, 2911 cases with AKI were matched to 9309 controls without AKI. Postoperative diuretic [OR = 1.96; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.68-2.29], but not ACEI/ARB (OR = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.72-0.95) or NSAID (OR = 1.12; 95% CI = 0.96-1.31), use was independently associated with higher odds of AKI (including stages 1 and 2/3 AKI) after all types of major surgery. There were increased adjusted odds of AKI 1 to 5 d after first exposure to diuretics and 1 d after first exposure to NSAIDs (but not after later exposures). Relationships between ACEI/ARB use and AKI varied by surgery type (p-interaction = 0.004), with lower odds of AKI observed among ACEI/ARB use after cardiac surgery (OR = 0.70; 95% CI = 0.57-0.81), but no difference after other major surgeries.


      Postoperative administration of diuretics and NSAIDs was associated with increased odds of AKI after major surgery. These findings characterize potentially modifiable medication exposures associated with AKI after surgery.


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