Prognostic Predictors of Mortality in Male Breast Cancer: Outcomes in an Urban Population

Published:September 28, 2022DOI:



      Male breast cancer (MBC) accounts for 0.5% to 1% of all breast cancers diagnosed annually. The purpose of this study is to evaluate prognostic factors in MBC.


      We performed a retrospective chart review of patients with MBC between 2010 and 2021. Demographics, comorbidities, cancer characteristics, recurrence, and mortality were collected. Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to determine prognostic factors. A Kaplan–Meier curve was used to plot survival probabilities.


      A total of 47 male patients were identified. The mean age at presentation was 64.1 y. Twenty eight (59.6%) patients were African American and 14 patients (29.8%) were Caucasian. Most patients had invasive ductal carcinoma (89.4%) and presented with T1 or T2 tumors (40.4% and 38.3%, respectively). Three patients (6.4%) had a recurrence and eight patients (17%) died. Using mortality as an end point, age (≥ 76.1 y) indicated a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.13 (P = 0.004), diabetes mellitus (HR = 5.45, P = 0.023), atrial fibrillation (HR = 8.0, P = 0.009), end-stage renal disease (HR 6.47, P = 0.023), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 3 (HR = 7.92, P = 0.024), poorly differentiated grade (HR = 7.21, P = 0.033), and metastatic disease (HR = 30.94, P = 0.015) had an increased risk of mortality. Overall survival at 3 y was 79.2%.


      Advanced age, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, end-stage renal disease, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group score of 3, poorly differentiated tumors, and metastatic disease are unfavorable prognostic factors in MBC. Compared to female breast cancer, MBC showed poorer overall survival.


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