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Risk Stratification by Percent Liver Herniation in Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia

Published:October 25, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2022.09.002

      Highlights

      • Assessing percent liver herniation as a continuous variable, rather than an ordinal variable, may better benefit the evaluation of outcomes in CDH and prenatal counseling.

      Abstract

      Introduction

      Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is associated with pulmonary hypoplasia, pulmonary hypertension, and significant neonatal morbidity. Although intrathoracic liver herniation (LH) >20% is associated with adverse outcomes, the relationship between LH <20% and outcomes is poorly characterized.

      Methods

      A single-center retrospective cohort study was performed from 2011 to 2020 of 80 fetuses with left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia that were delivered and repaired at our institution. Perinatal, perioperative, and postoperative data were collected. We evaluated the association of %LH with outcomes as a stratified ordinal variable (0%-10% LH, 10%-19% LH, and >20% LH) and as a continuous variable. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance with Bonferroni post hoc analysis, chi-square analyses, and univariate logistic regression.

      Results

      Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) (P < 0.001), repair on ECMO (P = 0.002), repair with patch (P < 0.001), length of stay (P = 0.002), inhaled nitric oxide use (P < 0.001), and sildenafil use at discharge (P < 0.001), showed significant differences among LH groups. There were no differences among the groups concerning survival (at discharge, 6 mo, and 1 y) and tracheostomy. On further analysis there was no difference between 10% and 19% LH and ≥20% LH patients concerning ECMO (P = 0.55), repair on ECMO (P = 0.54), repair with patch (P = 1.00), length of stay (P = 1.00), and inhaled nitric oxide use (P = 0.33). Logistic regression analysis displayed a significant association with LH and ECMO, repair on ECMO, repair with patch, inhaled nitric oxide use, and sildenafil use.

      Conclusions

      Our analysis displays no significant difference in perinatal management between patients with 10%-19% and ≥20% LH. These findings suggest that the historical cutoff of ≥20% LH may not be sufficient alone to guide perinatal counseling and decision-making.

      Keywords

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