Minimally Invasive Surgery for Genitourinary Trauma: A Nationwide Outcomes-Based Analysis

Published:October 19, 2022DOI:



      Bladder and ureteral injuries are uncommon in trauma patients but are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Patients presenting with such injuries may undergo either open surgical repair or laparoscopic repair. We aimed to compare outcomes of open surgical approach and laparoscopy in trauma patients with isolated bladder and ureteral injury. We hypothesized that laparoscopy is associated with improved outcomes.


      We performed a 2017 review of American College of Surgeons Trauma Quality Improvement Program and identified trauma patients with bladder and ureteral injury who underwent open surgical repair or laparoscopy. A 1:1 propensity score matching was performed adjusting for demographics, emergency department vitals (systolic blood pressure, heart rate, Glasgow Coma Scale), mechanism of injury, Injury Severity Score, each body region Abbreviated Injury Scale score, and transfusion units. Outcomes were rates of in-hospital major complications and mortality.


      Of the 1,004,440 trauma patients, 384 patients (open: 192 and laparoscopy: 192) were matched and included. The mean age was 36 ± 15 y, Injury Severity Score was 27 [27-48], 77% were males, and 56% of patients had a blunt mechanism of injury, and 44% had penetrating injuries. Overall mortality was 7.3%. On univariate analysis, mortality was lower in the open group as compared to the laparoscopy group (10.4% versus 4.2%, P = 0.019) and survivor-only hospital length of stay was longer in the open group (8 [8-9] versus 7 [5-11], P = 0.008). There was no difference in overall major complications (23% versus 21%, P = 0.621). On multivariate analysis, open surgical repair was independently associated with lower odds of mortality (adjusted odds ratio: 0.405, 95% confidence interval: [0.17-0.95], P-value = 0.038)


      In our analysis open surgical repair of bladder and ureteral injuries was associated with lower mortality with other outcomes being similar when compared to laparoscopy. Laparoscopic surgical repair may not have an advantage over the open surgical repair for bladder and ureteral injuries. Further prospective studies are needed to delineate the ideal surgical approach for these injuries.


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