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Ethnic Disparities in Ileal Pouch Anal Anastomosis Outcomes: An ACS-NSQIP Study

Published:November 14, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2022.09.024

      Abstract

      Introduction

      Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) has become the gold standard operation performed for patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) who require colectomy for medically refractory disease or colitis-associated neoplasia. This study aims to evaluate whether differences in surgical outcomes following IPAA creation is associated with minority ethnicity using data from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) surgical outcomes database.

      Methods

      The ACS-NSQIP proctectomy-targeted data files (2016-2019) were reviewed to identify patients who underwent an IPAA creation (Current Procedural Terminology codes: 44157, 44158, 44211, and 45113). Demographic, comorbidity, perioperative characteristics, and postoperative outcomes, particularly total-morbidity, surgical site infection, and anastomotic leak, were compared for White, African–American, Hispanic, and Asian patients. Separate multivariable logistic regressions were calculated for each outcome of interest. Certain postoperative outcomes required collation to be analyzed due to low numbers, such as combining all surgical site infections (SSIs), anastomotic leak, and septic complications as “infection complications”. For each regression, a P value of <0.05 was considered to be significant.

      Results

      A total of 1462 patients were identified who underwent an IPAA creation. There were 1290 (88.2%) Caucasian, 66 (4.5%) African–American, 49 (3.4%) Hispanic, and 57 (3.9%) Asian patients. Minority race or ethnicity was not associated with higher odds of total morbidity, readmission, reoperation, the development of any SSI, anastomotic leak, or other septic complications as compared to White patients. African–American ethnicity was associated with higher odds of developing postoperative bleeding complications (odds ratio [OR] 2.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15-5.21; P = 0.020) and postoperative renal dysfunction (OR 4.32, CI 1.43-13.07; P = 0.010) as compared to White patients. Elevated body mass index (BMI) was associated with higher odds of developing an SSI (OR 1.03, CI 1.00-1.06; P = 0.045), or an “infection” complication (OR 1.04, CI 1.01-1.07; P = 0.012), but was protective against bleeding complications (OR 0.94, CI 0.9-0.98; P = 0.004). Smoking was associated with higher odds of developing an SSI, anastomotic leak, or septic complications in the combined “infection” regression analysis (OR 2.02, CI 1.25-3.26; P = 0.004). In the analysis of total-morbidity, both hypertension (OR 1.64, CI 1.11-2.42; P = 0.013) and an ASA Class score >3 (OR 1.36, CI 1.03-1.79; P = 0.029) were associated with increased odds of complications.

      Conclusions

      This analysis of the ACS-NSQIP national database data suggests that ethnicity is not associated with disparities in surgical outcomes following IPAA surgery. African–American ethnicity was however associated with higher odds of developing postoperative bleeding complications and renal dysfunction as compared to White patients. Elevated BMI and smoking history are associated with an increased risk of SSI, anastomotic leak and septic complications.

      Keywords

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