Advertisement

Adolescent Gun Violence Shows an Age Group to Focus Trauma Prevention

Published:December 06, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2022.10.011

      Abstract

      Introduction

      Gun violence continues to escalate in America's urban areas. Peer groups of gun wound victims are potential targets for violence prevention initiatives; identification of this cohort is pivotal to efficient deployment strategies. We hypothesize a specific age at which the incidence of penetrating trauma increases significantly in adolescence, below which should be the focus on future trauma prevention.

      Methods

      Adolescent trauma patients with gunshot wounds seen from July 2011 through June 2021 at a well-established, urban, academic level 1 trauma center were reviewed retrospectively and grouped by age. A linear regression and repeated measured analysis of variance evaluated the change in gunshot wound victims over this time, grouped by age. Demographics were extrapolated, and standard statistical analysis was performed.

      Results

      A total of 1304 adolescent trauma patients were included. Those aged 15 y and under had an unchanged incidence of gunshot wounds. However, those aged 16 y and more experienced the majority of increased gun violence; 92% were Black and 90% were male with a mortality of 12%. Adolescents aged 15 y and below were 95% Black and 84% male, with a mortality of 18%.

      Conclusions

      Primary prevention efforts to mitigate gun violence should be focused on adolescents below 16 y of age. Prevention of gun violence should include community outreach efforts directed toward middle school-aged children and younger, hoping to decrease the incidence of injury due to gun violence in older adolescents in the future.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of Surgical Research
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

      1. Gun violence archive.
        (Available at:)
        https://www.gunviolencearchive.org
        Date: 2021
        Date accessed: December 2, 2021
        • Pino E.C.
        • Gebo E.
        • Dugan E.
        • Jay J.
        Trends in violent penetrating injuries during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic.
        JAMA Netw Open. 2022; 5: e2145708https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.45708
        • Ronca K.
        Epidemiology of adolescent gun violence: the parallel tragedies of rural suicide and urban homicide.
        in: Dodson N.A. Adolescent Gun Violence Prevention. Springer, Cham2021
        • WISQARS – Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System
        Centers for disease control and prevention, national center for injury prevention and control.
        https://www.cdc.gov/injury/wisqars/index.html
        Date accessed: December 2, 2021
        • Vasan A.
        • Mitchell H.K.
        • Fein J.A.
        • Buckler D.G.
        • Wiebe D.J.
        • South E.C.
        Association of neighborhood gun violence with mental health-related pediatric emergency department utilization.
        JAMA Pediatr. 2021; 175: 1244-1251
        • Miller K.R.
        • Jones C.M.
        • McCLave S.A.
        • et al.
        Food access, food insecurity, and gun violence: examining a complex relationship.
        Curr Nutr Rep. 2021; 10: 317-323
        • Duncan T.K.
        • Waxman K.
        • Romero J.
        • Diaz G.
        Operation PeaceWorks: a community program with the participation of a level II trauma center to decrease gang-related violence.
        J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2014; 76: 1208-1213
        • Bonne S.L.
        • Violano P.
        • Duncan T.K.
        • et al.
        Prevention of firearm violence through specific types of community-based programming: an eastern association for the surgery of trauma evidence-based review.
        Ann Surg. 2021; 274: 298-305
        • Garbarino J.
        • Bradshaw C.P.
        • Vorrasi J.A.
        Mitigating the effects of gun violence on children and youth.
        Future Child. 2002; 12: 73-85
        • Spano R.
        First time gun carrying and the primary prevention of youth gun violence for African American youth living in extreme poverty.
        Aggress Violent Behav. 2012; 17: 83-88
        • Matthay E.C.
        • Farkas K.
        • Rudolph K.E.
        • et al.
        Firearm and nonfirearm violence after operation peacemaker fellowship in Richmond, California, 1996-2016.
        Am J Public Health. 2019; 109: 1605-1611
        • Corburn J.
        • Boggan D.
        • Muttagi K.
        • et al.
        A healing-centered approach to preventing urban gun violence: the Advance Peace Model.
        Humanit Soc Sci Commun. 2021; 8: 142