One of the advantages of partial Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta (pREBOA) compared to the original model is the mitigation of reperfusion injury. The safety and efficacy of pREBOA have not been demonstrated in the setting of aeromedical evacuation. We hypothesized that the pREBOA would result in less ischemia-reperfusion injury after altitude exposure.
Twenty-four swine underwent femur fracture with hemorrhage for 20 min, followed by resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) deployment to Zone 1 and were randomized to pREBOA-PRO (Prytime Medical Devices Inc) full inflation, partial inflation, or sham inflation and then an altitude exposure of ground level or 8000 ft for 15 min. The primary endpoint was to examine if the balloon functioned at altitude. Our secondary endpoint was investigating evidence of ischemia-reperfusion by hemodynamic instability, electrolyte derangements, and acidosis. Comparisons were made by ANOVA.
After deflation, the partially inflated group maintained a higher mean arterial pressure (MAP) compared to fully inflated group (P = 0.026). Full REBOA pigs were more tachycardic compared to sham pREBOA at ground (P < 0.001) and this was exacerbated at altitude (P < 0.001). Full REBOA pigs were more acidotic than sham and pREBOA at ground pigs (P = 0.0006 and P = 0.0002, respectively). Altitude increased the acidosis in full REBOA pigs, resulting in a greater base deficit (P < 0.0001), lactate (P < 0.0001), and IL-6 (P = 0.006).
PREBOA resulted in less severe ischemia-reperfusion injury at both altitude and ground, while full balloon inflation at altitude exacerbated acidosis and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Efforts should therefore be made to utilize partial balloon occlusion when employing the REBOA catheter.
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Published online: November 17, 2022
Accepted: October 18, 2022
Received in revised form: October 4, 2022
Received: June 7, 2022
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