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Novel Estimates of Renal Function are Associated with Short-Term Left Ventricular Assist Device Outcomes

Published:November 19, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2022.10.072

      Abstract

      Introduction

      Although preoperative kidney function has been associated with left ventricular assist device (LVAD) outcomes, most previous estimates of glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) have utilized race in the calculation. Recently, novel eGFR equations independent of race have been suggested and validated. Therefore, we undertook this study to evaluate the predictive value of a novel, non–race-based eGFR calculation on short-term LVAD outcomes.

      Methods

      We conducted a retrospective review of all primary LVAD implants from 2017 to 2022 at our institution. eGFR was calculated using the novel Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration 2021 formula (CKD-EPI 2021). eGFR was also calculated according to the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation for historical reference. Primary stratification was by eGFR: ≥60, 30-60, and <30. The primary outcome was 1-y survival. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression modeling was used to further evaluate the impact of kidney function on 1-y mortality.

      Results

      From 2017 to 2022, 91 patients underwent LVAD implantation with a HeartMate 3 device. The average age was 65.20 ± 11.08, 77 (84.62%) were male, and 14 (15.38%) were Black. The mean CKD-EPI 2021 eGFR was 56.07 ± 23.55 compared with 54.72 ± 26.37 as calculated by Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (P = 0.719). Overall, 30-d and 1-y survival was 96.7% and 85.0%, respectively. When stratified by eGFR, there was a significant difference in 1-y survival (≥60, 93.46%; 30-60, 87.36%; <30, 62.75%; P = 0.016). On multivariable analysis, a preoperative eGFR <30 was associated with an increased hazard of 1-y mortality (5.58 [1.06-29.17], P = 0.043).

      Conclusions

      In conclusion, non–race-based estimates of renal function are predictive of short-term LVAD outcomes. Further investigation of this phenomenon is warranted.

      Keywords

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