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Traumatic Injury in Pregnancy: A Propensity Score-Matched Analysis

Published:December 12, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2022.10.087

      Abstract

      Introduction

      Trauma represents the leading cause of nonobstetrical maternal death. How in-hospital outcomes of acutely injured pregnant patients (PP) compares to that of similarly aged nonpregnant control groups (CGs) has not been described. We hypothesized that PPs suffering acute traumatic injuries would have worse outcomes compared to a matched CG.

      Materials and methods

      The American College of Surgeons Trauma Quality Improvement Program (TQIP) was used to identify traumatically injured females between 2017 and 2019. Propensity score matching on age, race, injury severity score , and type of trauma (blunt, penetrating, or other) was used to compare PPs and the CG. Primary outcomes were mortality, disposition, length of stay (LOS), and complications.

      Results

      A total of 1078 traumatically injured pregnant females were identified. Propensity score matching resulted in 990 patients in the PP and CG cohorts. After matching, PPs were more likely to be assault victims (11% versus 6%, P < 0.001), had longer length of stay (LOS) (5 versus 3 d, P < 0.001), and were more likely to require mechanical ventilation (26% versus 16%, P < 0.001) or intensive care unit (ICU) admission (44% versus 32%, P < 0.001). PPs were more likely to proceed directly to the operating room (OR)(34% versus 15%, P < 0.001) and less likely to be discharged home from the emergency department (ED) (1% versus 12%, P < 0.001). Complications and mortality rates were similar among PPs.

      Conclusions

      After acute trauma, PPs did not have increased mortality or complications when compared to matched controls, although they were more likely to be victims of assault, directly proceed to the OR, require mechanical ventilation or ICU admission, and have longer LOSs.

      Keywords

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