Acute Care Surgery

        Nicotinamide Mononucleotide Attenuates LPS-Induced Acute Lung Injury With Anti-Inflammatory, Anti-Oxidative and Anti-Apoptotic Effects. Ye Tian, Cheng-Long Zhu, Peng Li, Hui-Ru Li, Qiang Liu, Xiao-Ming Deng, and Jia-Feng Wang 9
        A National Evaluation of Emergency General Surgery Outcomes Among Hospitalized Cardiac Patients. Lakshika Tennakoon, Nicholas A. Hakes, Aussama K. Nassar, David A. Spain, and Lisa M. Knowlton 24
        Disparities in Care Among Gunshot Victims: A Nationwide Analysis. Reynold Henry, Panagiotis K. Liasidis, Blade Olson, Damon Clark, Tatiana Hoyos Gomez, Cameron Ghafil, Li Ding, Kazuhide Matsushima, Martin Schreiber, and Kenji Inaba 59
        Partial Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta Limits Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury After Simulated Aeromedical Evacuation. Kathleen E. Singer, Taylor E. Wallen, Jackie Youngs, T. Christopher Blakeman, Rebecca M. Schuster, Mary F. Stuever, and Michael D. Goodman 118
        Risk Factors Associated With Neurosurgical Intervention in Patients With Mild Traumatic Intracranial Hemorrhage. Puja D. Patel, Mark Broadwin, Tara Stansbury, Jeffrey B. Brown, Hope Kincaid, Shae Duka, Justin Pasquale, Mark Cipolle, and Kamalesh Shah 137
        Association of the Affordable Care Act Medicaid Expansion With Secondary Overtriage Among Young Adult Trauma Patients. Lindsey Asti, Deena J. Chisolm, Henry Xiang, Katherine J. Deans, and Jennifer N. Cooper 161
        Is the Implementation of an Interprofessional Communication Smart Phone Application Associated With Improved Survival Among Critically Ill Surgical Patients? Omar Bushara, Egide Abahuje, Ali Amro, Kaithlyn Tesorero, Carmen Diaz, Julie Johnson, Michael Shapiro, Bona Ko, Karl Y. Bilimoria, and Anne M. Stey 179
        Functional Status is Key to Long-Term Survival in Emergency General Surgery Conditions. Vanessa P. Ho, Wyatt P. Bensken, J. Alford Flippin, Heena P. Santry, Jeffrey A. Claridge, Christopher W. Towe, and Siran M. Koroukian 224
        Factors Affecting Peripheral Intravenous Catheter Placement During Pediatric Trauma Resuscitation. Emily C. Alberto, Angela Mastrianni, Travis M. Sullivan, Kathleen H. McCarthy, Zachary P. Milestone, Lauren Chung, Nicholas Cha, Emily Mapelli, Genevieve J. Sippel, Ivan Marsic, Karen J. O'Connell, Aleksandra Sarcevic, and Randall S. Burd 241
        Microvesicle-Mediated Transfer of DNA Methyltransferase Proteins Results in Recipient Cell Immunosuppression. Ryan Harkless, Kanhaiya Singh, John Christman, Adara McCarty, Chandan Sen, Anahita Jalilvand, and Jon Wisler 368
        Existing Scores Fail to Predict Bowel Ischemia in Patients With Adhesive Small Bowel Obstruction. Amram Kupietzky, Omri Dodi, Roi Dover, Nachum Emil Eliezer Lourie, Yehonatan Berrebi, Naama Lev-Cohain, Nurith Hiller, Haggi Mazeh, and Ido Mizrahi 416
        Utility of Thromboelastography in Detecting NOAC-Related Coagulopathy in Traumatic Brain Injury. Emily Breeding, Margaret Trainor, Ishraq Kabir, and Michael Martyak 423
        Shock Index for the Prediction of Interventions and Mortality in Patients With Blunt Thoracic Trauma. Mohammad Asim, Ayman El-Menyar, Talat Chughtai, Ammar Al-Hassani, Husham Abdelrahman, Sandro Rizoli, and Hassan Al-Thani 438
        Associations Between Care Bundles and Postoperative Outcomes After Major Emergency Abdominal Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Rune M. Trangbæk, Kirsten Wahlstrøm, Ismail Gögenur, and Jakob Burcharth 469
        Closed Collaborative Surgical Intensive Care Unit Modeling and Its Association With Trauma Patient Outcomes. Tianyuan Yao, Hanna K. Jensen, Rebecca J. Reif, Mary K. Kimbrough, Kiley R. Schlortt, Joshua W. Bennett, and Avi Bhavaraju 494
        COVID Stressed, but Not Due to the Virus. Julie Y. Valenzuela, R. Jonathan Robitsek, Melissa K. James, Katherine McKenzie, and Thomas J. Esposito 523
        Angioembolization in Severe Pelvic Trauma is Associated With Venous Thromboembolism. Mary Bokenkamp, Ander Dorken Gallastegi, Tommy Brown, John O. Hwabejire, Jason Fawley, April E. Mendoza, Noelle N. Saillant, Peter J. Fagenholz, Haytham M.A. Kaafarani, George C. Velmahos, and Jonathan J. Parks 540
        Specificity of Presepsin as a Biomarker of Bacterial Infection in Mouse Sepsis Models. Kyosuke Hosokawa, Hideaki Obara, Kazumasa Fukuda, Kentaro Mastubara, and Yuko Kitagawa 572
        Potentially Inappropriate Medications are Associated With Geriatric Trauma Recidivism. Adam Sigal, Christopher A. Butts, Traci Deaner, Tom Wasser, Blake Bailey, Monisha Bindra, Alison Muller, Anthony P. Martin, and Adrian Ong 581
        Agitation in the Trauma Bay is an Early Indicator of Hemorrhagic Shock. Mary E. Bokenkamp, Pedro G. Teixeira, Marc Trust, Tatiana Cardenas, Jayson Aydelotte, Marielle Ngoue, Emilio Ramos, Sadia Ali, Chloe Ng, and Carlos V.R. Brown 586
        Complexity of Transferred Geriatric Adults Requiring Emergency General Surgery: A Rural Tertiary Center Experience. Laura K. Barthold, Charles P. Burney, Laura E. Baumann, and Alexandra Briggs 640
        Law Enforcement and Patient Privacy Among Survivors of Violence: A Nationwide Mixed-Methods Study. Kate M. Gallen, Michael J. Smith, Joshua Crane, Carly Loughran, Kirsten Schuster, Jake Sonnenberg, Mildred Reese, Vicki W. Girard, Ji Seon Song, and Erin C. Hall 648
        Military and Civilian Trauma System Integration: A Global Case Series. Ghassan T. Alswaiti, Tamara J. Worlton, Matthew Arnaouti, Gabrielle Cahill, Amy Russell, Gareth R. Hide, Simon Horne, Damian L. Clarke, Andrew K.L. Robinson, Henk van der Wal, Aldo Ayvar, Miklosh Bala, Brian Gavitt, Aysha S. Aldhaheri, Asma S. Al Mughery, Zachary Brown, Michael D. Baird, Michelle Joseph, and Amila Ratnayake 666
        Prospective Validation and Comparison of Laboratory Risk Indicator for Necrotizing Fasciitis (LRINEC) and Site Other Than Lower Limb, Immunosuppression, Age, Renal Impairment, and Inflammatory Markers (SIARI) Scoring Systems for Necrotizing Fasciitis. Karthikk R, Cherring Tandup, Dilip Reddy, Divij Jayant, Krishna Naik, Swapnesh Sahu, Vipul Thakur, Siddhant Khare, Yashwant Sakaray, Santosh Irrinki, and Lileswar Kaman 719
        If at First You do Not Succeed: Consideration of Attempts in Patients With Trauma. Simin Golestani, Marc D. Trust, Kristophor A. Olson, Charles Hill, Mary Bokenkamp, Ben Coopwood, Pedro Teixeira, Jayson Aydelotte, Tatiana Cardenas, Lawrence Brown, Emilio Ramos, Marielle Ngoue, Sadia Ali, Chloe Ng, and Carlos VR. Brown 778
        Cost of Pediatric Trauma: A Comparison of Non-Accidental and Accidental Trauma in Pediatric Patients. Alyssa E. Peace, Deanna Caruso, Chris B. Agala, Michael R. Phillips, Sean E. McLean, Don K. Nakayama, Andrea A. Hayes, and Adesola C. Akinkuotu 806
        Cytokine Biomarker Phenotype for Early Prediction and Triage of Sepsis in Blunt Trauma Patients. Jun Wang, Dalin Wen, Shi Zeng, Juan Du, Li Cui, Jianhui Sun, Guosheng Chen, Ling Zeng, Dingyuan Du, Lianyang Zhang, Jin Deng, Jianxin Jiang, and Anqiang Zhang 824
        Adolescent Gun Violence Shows an Age Group to Focus Trauma Prevention. Joanelle A. Bailey, Christina L. Jacovides, Dale Butler, Gary A. Bass, Mark J. Seamon, Jeremy Cannon, and Niels D. Martin 853
        Development of Imaging Criteria for Geriatric Blunt Trauma Patients. Sami K. Kishawi, Victoria J. Adomshick, Penelope N. Halkiadakis, Keira Wilson, Jordan C. Petitt, Laura R. Brown, Jeffrey A. Claridge, and Vanessa P. Ho 879
        Illicit Fentanyl Exposure Among Victims of Violence Treated at a Trauma Center. Kyle R. Fischer, Timothy Traynor, Benoit Stryckman, Joseph Richardson, Laura Buchanan, and Zachary D.W. Dezman 937
        Phenobarbital for the Management of Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome in Critically Ill, Surgical-Trauma Patients. Christine Pham, Anna Goldenberg-Sandau, Rachel Sensenig, Terence Chau, Lauren Igneri, Diana Solomon, and Linda Chuang 965
        Drug and Alcohol Use in Trauma Patients Before and During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Merry Zhai, Kristy Bono, Wei Wei Zhang, Stephanie Bonne, Emily Gordon, Erin Zerbo, Harrisson Quijote, and Nina Glass 999
        Traumatic Injury in Pregnancy: A Propensity Score-Matched Analysis. Ayman Ali, John T. Simpson, Danielle Tatum, Jessica A. Sedhom, Jacob Broome, Patrick R. McGrew, Juan Duchesne, and Sharven Taghavi 1018
        A Novel COVID-19 Severity Score is Associated With Survival in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Dilational Tracheostomy. Amanda Hambrecht, Leandra Krowsoski, Charles DiMaggio, Charles Hong, Benjamin Medina, John Thomas McDevitt, Michael McRae, Vikramjit Mukherjee, Amit Uppal, and Marko Bukur 1026
        Evaluating Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Polymerase Chain Reaction Nasal Screening as a Tool for Antimicrobial Stewardship. Kristy Bono, Jorge A. Caceda, Merry Zhai, Helen Horng, Carma Goldstein, Ziad Sifri, David Cennimo, and Nina E. Glass 1047
        A Novel Device With Improved Outcomes for Tube Thoracostomy. Aimee K. LaRiccia, Timothy Wolff, Keshav Deshpande, and M. Chance Spalding 1100
        Characterization of Mortality by Sepsis Source in Patients Admitted to the Surgical Intensive Care Unit. Jordan Rosales, Megan Ireland, Kathia Gonzalez-Gallo, Jon Wisler, and Anahita Jalilvand 1117

        Cardiac Surgery

        Contemporary Outcomes of Isolated Tricuspid Valve Surgery. Emily Shih, Timothy J. George, J. Michael DiMaio, John J. Squiers, Jasjit K. Banwait, Kelley A. Hutcheson, Robert L. Smith, and William H. Ryan 1
        Novel Estimates of Renal Function are Associated With Short-Term Left Ventricular Assist Device Outcomes. Timothy J. George, Scott Biedermann, J. Michael DiMaio, Nitin Kabra, David A. Rawitscher, and Aasim Afzal 217
        Challenging Paradigm Limits of Retrograde Cerebral Perfusion During Lower Body Circulatory Arrest. Anna K. Gergen, Cenea Kemp, Christian V. Ghincea, Zihan Feng, Joseph C. Cleveland Jr, Jay D. Pal, Jessica Y. Rove, David A. Fullerton, Muhammad Aftab, and T. Brett Reece 699

        Education and Career Development

        General Surgery Residency Virtual Recruitment During the Pandemic: An Analysis of Applicant Surveys. Dennis M. Vaysburg, Aaron M. Delman, Allison M. Ammann, Kevin M. Turner, Leah K. Winer, Jeffrey J. Sussman, Amy T. Makley, Michael D. Goodman, Ralph C. Quillin III, and Robert M. Van Haren 33
        Surgical Leadership Competencies for Navigating Hospital Network Expansion. Phillip Yang, Adrian Diaz, Karan R. Chhabra, Mary E. Byrnes, Abishek Rajkumar, Hari Nathan, and Justin B. Dimick 76
        Gender-Based Discrimination Among Medical Students: A Cross-Sectional Study in Brazil. Isabella Faria, Letícia Campos, Tayana Jean-Pierre, Abbie Naus, Ayla Gerk, Maria Luiza Cazumbá, Alexandra M. Buda, Mariana Graner, Carolina B. Moura, Alaska Pendleton, Laura Pompermaier, Paul Truche, Júlia Loyola Ferreira, and Alexis N. Bowder 102
        Distortions in the Balance Between Teaching and Efficiency in the Operating Room. Ingrid Woelfel, Theresa Wang, Heidi Pieper, Michael Meara, and Xiaodong Phoenix Chen 110
        Correlation of Scholarly Activity and Departmental Clinical Productivity in a Surgical Subspecialty. Jason Silvestre, Andrew R. Boone, Gabriel Wilson, Terry L. Thompson, Bernard T. Lee, and Robert H. Wilson 324
        AI-Based Video Segmentation: Procedural Steps or Basic Maneuvers? Calvin Perumalla, LaDonna Kearse, Michael Peven, Shlomi Laufer, Cassidi Goll, Brett Wise, Su Yang, and Carla Pugh 500
        Generating Rare Surgical Events Using CycleGAN: Addressing Lack of Data for Artificial Intelligence Event Recognition. Hossein Mohamadipanah, LaDonna Kearse, Brett Wise, Leah Backhus, and Carla Pugh 594
        Starting a Vascular Surgery Fellowship at a Rural Healthcare Center. Niteesh Sundaram, Lawrence Sampson, Silviu Marica, Joseph Ronsivalle, Anne Rizzo, and Burt Cagir 611
        Developing a Robotic Surgery Curriculum: Selection of Virtual Reality Drills for Content Alignment. Rodrigo E. Alterio, Madhuri B. Nagaraj, Daniel J. Scott, Juan Tellez, Imad Radi, Hayley B. Baker, Herbert J. Zeh, and Patricio M. Polanco 726
        Experiential Learning of Interdisciplinary Care Skills in Surgery Assessed from Student Reflections. Lydia Buzzard, Dorothy Stepp, Dawn Elfenbein, and Ann P. O'Rourke 783
        Predicting General Surgery Match Outcomes Using Standardized Ranking Metrics. Rui-Min D. Mao, Taylor P. Williams, Anthony Price, Kayla M. Colvill, Claire B. Cummins, and Ravi S. Radhakrishnan 817
        COVID-19, Racial Injustice, and Medical Student Engagement With Global Health: A Single-Institution Survey. Phoebe Miller, Ruth Laverde, Avery Thompson, Paul Park, Doruk Ozgediz, and Marissa A. Boeck 833
        The Impact of Surgical Boot Camp on Medical Student Confidence and Imposter Syndrome. Rachel L. Choron, Alexander Manzella, Amanda L. Teichman, Jenny Cai, Mary E. Schroeder, Meizhen Yao, and Patricia Greenberg 872

        Endocrine Surgery

        Social Determinants of Health and Quality of Life in Endocrine Surgery Patients. Victoria Lai, Deliya B. Wesley, Hui Zheng, Jana Lu, Kristi Graves, Kristen M. Miller, Erin A. Felger, Nancy M. Carroll, Jennifer E. Rosen, and Judy Huei-yu Wang 194
        Cardiovascular Health by Graves’ Disease Management Modality – Surgery Versus Radioactive Iodine Versus Antithyroid Medications: A Network Meta-Analysis. Peter P. Issa, Mohammad Hussein, Mahmoud Omar, Ruhul Munshi, Abdallah S. Attia, Yusef Buti, Mohamed Aboueisha, Mohamed Shama, Eman Toraih, and Emad Kandil 266
        Getting Your Foot in the Door: Access to Surgical Care for Thyroid Disease. Rongzhi Wang, Adam Bonner, Nicolas Mayfield, Peter Abraham, Tucker Bettis, Jessica Fazendin, Brenessa Lindeman, and Herbert Chen 344
        Recovery After Thyroid and Parathyroid Surgery: How do Our Patients Really Feel? William G. Lee, Jessica E. Gosnell, Wen T. Shen, Quan-Yang Duh, Insoo Suh, and Yufei Chen 764
        Examining National Guideline Changes Association With Hemithyroidectomy Rates by Surgeon Volume. Brandon L. Ellsworth, Brandy Sinco, Niki Matusko, Susan C. Pitt, David T. Hughes, Paul G. Gauger, Michael Englesbe, and Hunter J. Underwood 858
        The Association of Socioeconomic Factors and Well-Differentiated Thyroid Cancer. Andrew Bonner, Brendon Herring, Rongzhi Wang, Andrea Gillis, Polina Zmijewski, Brenessa Lindeman, Jessica Fazendin, and Herbert Chen 973
        Extreme Elevation of Baseline Intraoperative Parathyroid Hormone Measurements: Should Usual Protocols Apply? David R. Brown, Charles P. Burney, Grace K. Nevil, Phillip J. Gray, Mark A. Eid, and Meredith J. Sorensen 1073

        Gastrointestinal Surgery

        Ethnic Disparities in Ileal Pouch Anal Anastomosis Outcomes: An ACS-NSQIP Study. Koby Herman, Akshay Pokala, Samantha Nemeth, and Bo Shen 84
        The Extraperitoneal Approach to Left-Sided Colorectal Resections: A Human Cadaveric Study. Tarek S. Hany, Alka M. Jadav, Edward Parkin, Joseph McAleer, Paul Barrow, and Arnab K. Bhowmick 172
        Perception versus Reality: A Review of Narcotic Prescribing Habits After Common Laparoscopic Surgeries. Casey T. Walk, Rebecca Nowak, Priti P. Parikh, Timothy N. Crawford, and Randy J. Woods 188
        Opioid Use After Colorectal Resection: Identifying Preoperative Risk Factors for Postoperative Use. Brittany E. Levy, Jennifer T. Castle, Laura M. Ebbitt, Caleb Kennon, Erin McAtee, Daniel L. Davenport, B. Mark Evers, and Avinash Bhakta 296
        Surgical Site Infections in Colorectal Resections: What is the Cost? Brittany E. Levy, Wesley S. Wilt, Jennifer T. Castle, Erin McAtee, Samuel C. Walling, Daniel L. Davenport, Avinash Bhakta, and Jitesh A. Patel 336
        Patient and the Public's Perceptions of Bariatric Surgery: A Systematic Review. Nithya D. Rajeev, Jamil S. Samaan, Agnes Premkumar, Nitin Srinivasan, Erin Yu, and Kamran Samakar 385
        Association of Surgery and Chemotherapy in Stage IV Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Carcinoma. William G. Wong, Arvind Dasari, and Chan Shen 407
        Practical Mouse Model to Investigate Therapeutics for Staphylococcus Aureus Contaminated Surgical Mesh Implants. Madison M. Collins, Brent Race, Ronald J. Messer, Chase Baune, Scott D. Kobayashi, Dan Long, Katie Williams, Aaron M. Hasenkrug, Kim Hasenkrug, and Natalia Malachowa 428
        Regional Differences in Procedural Care of Hemorrhoid Management in Medicare Patients; Unwarranted Variation in Clinical Practice for a Medical-First Problem. Mark Eid, Amanda Bastien, Robert Shaw, David C. Goodman, and S. Joga Ivatury 626
        Assessment of Attitudes Toward Initiation of Immediate Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Colon Cancer. Andrea M. Mesiti, Julianna Brouwer, Mehraneh D. Jafari, Yuqing Qiu, Lari Wenzel, Joseph Carmichael, Chelsea McKinney, Jason A. Zell, and Alessio Pigazzi 658
        Imaging Photoplethysmography for Noninvasive Anastomotic Perfusion Assessment in Intestinal Surgery. Stefan D. van der Stel, Marco Lai, Harald C. Groen, Mark Witteveen, Koert F.D. Kuhlmann, Brechtje A. Grotenhuis, Niels F.M. Kok, Mark van Gastel, Benno H.W. Hendriks, and Theo J.M. Ruers 705
        Prolonged Survival in Peritoneal Metastatic Appendiceal Carcinoma Patients Treated With Combined Cytoreductive Surgery and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy. Miklos Acs, Michael Gerken, Jozef Zustin, Sebastian Blaj, Sabina Isgandarova, and Pompiliu Piso 839
        Gastrointestinal Glomus Tumors: A Single Institution, 20-Year Retrospective Study. Andrea Zironda, Travis E. Grotz, Andrew L. Folpe, and Cornelius A. Thiels 982
        Tumor Necrosis is an Indicator of Poor Prognosis Among Hepatoma Patients Undergoing Resection. Fang-Ying Kuo, Hock-Liew Eng, Wei-Feng Li, Yueh-Wei Liu, Chih-Chi Wang, Chih-Che Lin, Chee-Chien Yong, and Yi-Hao Yen 1091
        Novel Application of Hydrodissection in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy for Gangrenous Gallbladders. Kayla K. Umemoto, Shahini Ananth, Anthony Ma, Anvay Ullal, Prakash V.A.K. Ramdass, Peter C. Lo, and Dinesh Vyas 1124

        Global Surgery

        Monitoring Indicators of Universal Access to Accessible and Safe Anesthetic and Surgical Care in a Peruvian Region: An Ambispective Study. Carlos Shiraishi-Zapata, Yovanky More-Vilela, Aldo Villarreal-Álamo, Víctor Morales-Cuervo, Dante Gil-Chiroque, Jaime Castillo-Tovar, Dante Ramírez-Ríos, Salomón Aguirre-Uribe, Joselyne Lecca-Castillo, Roxanna Garcia, Mario Oyanguren-Maldonado, Juan Paico-Palacios, Arnaldo Vite-Quiroga, and Milagros Niquen-Jimenez 127
        Surgical Training for Civilian Surgeons Interested in Humanitarian Surgery: A Scoping Review. Jonathan Mitchell, Ahmad Zeineddin, LaDonna Kearse, Katherine D. Downton, Adam L. Kushner, and Shailvi Gupta 282
        Global Disparities in Burn Outcomes: Does Gender Predict Mortality in the Global Burn Registry? Mitchell G. Bryski, Chao Long Azad, Eric W. Etchill, and Daniel S. Rhee 459

        Healthcare Delivery, Quality, and Safety

        Gender Homophily in Interphysician Referrals to Surgeons. Ya-Wen Chen, Claudia Orlas, David C. Chang, and Cassandra M. Kelleher 70
        Comprehensive History and Physicals are Common Before Low-Risk Surgery and Associated With Preoperative Test Overuse. Allan K. Metz, Nicholas L. Berlin, Monica L. Yost, Bonnie Cheng, Eve Kerr, Hari Nathan, Anthony Cuttitta, James Henderson, and Lesly A. Dossett 93
        A Video-Based Consent Tool: Development and Effect of Risk–Benefit Framing on Intention to Randomize. Writing Group for the CODA Collaborative 357
        Becoming a Sustainable Academic Surgeon. Connie Shao, Susan Tsai, Russell Woo, and Sophie Dream 606
        Reducing Unnecessary Type and Screens Prior to Thoracic Surgery: A Quality Improvement Initiative. David J. Finley, Kayla A. Fay, Eleah D. Porter, Rian M. Hasson, Timothy M. Millington, and Joseph D. Phillips 743
        Cross-Sectional Assessment of Surgical Consult Volume to Determine Optimal Residency Staffing During COVID-19 Lockdown. Arash Rahimi-Ardabily, Stephanie Stroever, and Royd Fukumoto 793
        The Bottom Line: Trauma Center Viability During COVID-19. Christina Colosimo, Lilly Sirover, John Porter, and Nicole Fox 867
        Racial Disparities in Surgical Outcomes of Acute Diverticulitis: Have We Moved the Needle? Caitlyn Braschi, Jessica K. Liu, Ashkan Moazzez, Hanjoo Lee, and Beverley A. Petrie 889
        Assessing the Quality of Online Health Information and Trend Data for Colorectal Malignancies. Catherine C. Beauharnais, Tess Aulet, Jetsen Rodriguez-Silva, John Konen, Paul R. Sturrock, Karim Alavi, Justin A. Maykel, and Jennifer S. Davids 923


        Practice-Based Learning and Improvement: Improving Morbidity and Mortality Review Using Natural Language Processing. Molly Kobritz, Vihas Patel, David Rindskopf, Lyudmyla Demyan, Mark Jarrett, Gene Coppa, and Anthony C. Antonacci 351

        Pediatric Surgery

        Tunneled Central Venous Catheters in Young Children: Complication Profile Can Guide Choice of Line. Jack Vernamonti, Tanvi Kartal, Elliott Overman, and K. Elizabeth Speck 19
        Population-Based Assessment of Urban Versus Rural Child Fatalities from Firearms in a Midwestern State. Amelia T. Collings, Cory Wuerch, Cameron Colgate, Jodi Raymond, Joseph O'Neil, and Matthew P. Landman 52
        Rising Mortality in Pediatric Self-Inflicted Firearm Trauma Associated With Distinct Anatomic Injury. Lea Hoefer, Adrian Camarena, Kelly Twohig, Ann Polcari, Robert Keskey, Danielle LaVigne, Mark B. Slidell, Kenneth Wilson, and David Hampton 259
        Evaluation of Missing Prehospital Physiological Values in Injured Children and Adolescents. Travis M. Sullivan, Zachary P. Milestone, Cindy D. Colson, Peyton E. Tempel, Waverly V. Gestrich-Thompson, and Randall S. Burd 305
        Implementation Science Fundamentals: Pediatric Surgery Enhanced Recovery After Surgery Protocol for Pectus Repair. Allison R. Thompson, Hannah Glick, Nathan S. Rubalcava, Jack P. Vernamonti, and K. Elizabeth Speck 313
        Intercostal Nerve Cryoablation is Associated With Reduced Opioid Use in Pediatric Oncology Patients. Stephanie Y. Chen, Shale J. Mack, James E. Stein, Lorraine I. Kelley-Quon, and Eugene S. Kim 377
        Higher Complication Rates for Total Versus Partial Thyroidectomy in the Pediatric Population. Brent A. Willobee, Carlos T. Huerta, Hallie J. Quiroz, Melissa L. Mao, Emily L. Ryon, Anthony Ferrantella, Chad M. Thorson, Juan E. Sola, and Eduardo A. Perez 449
        Optimal Timing of Inguinal Hernia Repair in Premature Infants: A NSQIP-P Study. Marla A. Sacks, Dan Neal, Seyed Pairawan, Edward P. Tagge, Asra Hashmi, Saleem Islam, and Faraz A. Khan 690
        Discordance Between Subjective and Objective Assessments of Activity After Pediatric Appendectomy. Samuel C. Linton, Soyang Kwon, Christopher De Boer, Suhail Zeineddin, Angie Figueroa, Mia DeTella, Christian Zbihley, Fizan Abdullah, and Hassan M.K. Ghomrawi 751
        Short-Term Complications After Total Thyroidectomy in Children. Audra J. Reiter, Andrew Hu, Gwyneth A. Sullivan, Eli Stein, Jill H. Samis, Jami L. Josefson, Jeffrey C. Rastatter, and Mehul V. Raval 758
        Pediatric Sickle Cell Disease Patients on Hydroxyurea Have Higher Rates of Surgical Splenectomy. Alicia D. Menchaca, Candace C. Style, Anthony D. Villella, Maria Burdjalov, Tariku J. Beyene, Peter C. Minneci, and Oluyinka O. Olutoye 798
        Nonoperative Management Versus Laparoscopic Appendectomy in Children: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis. Ursula C. Adams, Joshua N. Herb, Adesola C. Akinkuotu, Jared R. Gallaher, Anthony G. Charles, and Michael R. Phillips 929
        Upper Gastrointestinal Series in the Workup for Pediatric Gastrostomy Placement: Does it Delay Care? Ruth A. Lewit, Lauren Camp, Collin Dietrich, Ryan Hammond, Elizabeth Paton, Donald J. Lucas Jr, and Ankush Gosain 992
        Apical-Out Enteroids as an Innovative Model for Necrotizing Enterocolitis. Heather Liebe, Camille Schlegel, Xue Cai, Alena Golubkova, Christopher Loerke, Tyler Leiva, and Catherine J. Hunter 1106

        Plastic Surgery

        Stromal Vascular Fraction Obtained from Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue: Ex-Obese and Older Population as Main Clinical Targets. Francisca Frias, Beatriz Matos, Mariana Jarnalo, Sara Freitas-Ribeiro, Rui L. Reis, Rogério P. Pirraco, and Ricardo Horta 632
        Customizing Anterolateral Thigh Flap With Magnetic Resonance Angiography Differential Subsampling With Cartesian Ordering Imaging for Individualized Reconstruction of Extremity Defects. Yong Hu, Yang Wang, Songhua Cao, Ning Zhang, Wenpeng Xu, and Xiucun Li 733
        Continuous Versus Pulsatile Flow in 24-Hour Vascularized Composite Allograft Machine Perfusion in Swine: A Pilot Study. Pierre Tawa, Marion Goutard, Alec R. Andrews, Reinier J. de Vries, Ivy A. Rosales, Heidi Yeh, Basak Uygun, Mark A. Randolph, Alexandre G. Lellouch, Korkut Uygun, and Curtis L. Cetrulo Jr 1145

        Surgical Oncology

        Extensive Intraductal Component in Breast Cancer: What Role in Disease-Free Survival? Fabio Corsi, Sara Albasini, Simone Ciciriello, Laura Villani, Marta Truffi, Marta Sevieri, and Luca Sorrentino 233
        Indoor Versus Outdoor: Does Occupational Sunlight Exposure Increase Melanoma Risk? a Systematic Review. Richard C. Maduka, Karen Tai, Radha Gonsai, Nick DeWalt, Ashwin Chetty, Alexandria Brackett, Kelly Olino, Eric B. Schneider, and Vanita Ahuja 274
        Localizing Positive Axillary Lymph Nodes in Breast Cancer Patients Post Neoadjuvant Therapy. Raeda Taj, Sophie H. Chung, Nicole H. Goldhaber, Bryan H. Louie, Jordan G. Marganski, Navtej S. Grewal, Zachary S. Rane, Haydee Ojeda-Fournier, Ava Armani, Anne Wallace, and Sarah L. Blair 288
        Tolerance and Outcomes of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Geriatric Breast Cancer Patients. Lauren Brown, Michael J. Carr, Christine Sam, Weihong Sun, Junmin Whiting, Youngchul Kim, and M. Catherine Lee 329
        Peritoneal Metastases After Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm Resection: How Common are They? Mohammed O. Suraju, Anthony Snow, Apoorve Nayyar, Jeremy Chang, Scott K. Sherman, Hisakazu Hoshi, James R. Howe, and Carlos H.F. Chan 479
        Patient Preferences and Satisfaction With Decisions in Stage-III Melanoma: A Mixed Methods Study. Nicole M. Mott, Brooke C. Bredbeck, Ruby J. Kazemi, Brandon L. Ellsworth, Tasha M. Hughes, Christina V. Angeles, and Lesly A. Dossett 485
        Factors Associated With Cosmetic Outcomes After Treatment With a Novel Form of Breast Intraoperative Radiation Therapy. Gabriella C. Squeo, Max O. Meneveau, Nikole E. Varhegyi, Courtney M. Lattimore, Einsley Janowski, Timothy N. Showalter, and Shayna L. Showalter 514
        Burden of Care for Patients With In-Transit Melanoma. Zoey Duncan, Natalie Garcia, Tanya Correya, Chimaraije Amu-Nnadi, and Kristy Broman 550
        Immediate Breast Reconstruction Using the Autologous Dermal Flap. Ahmad Kaviani, Amir Ashraf-Ganjouei, Mahtab Vasigh, Sanaz Zand, and Erica Patocskai 713
        Informational Needs of Surgical Oncology Patients: A Cross-Sectional Patient Survey. Amber M. Moyer, Helen Madsen, Jocelyn Johnson, Marco Del Chiaro, Ana Gleisner, Christopher H. Lieu, Sarah Tevis, and Camille L. Stewart 771
        Resection of Recurrent Pelvic Soft Tissue Sarcoma: Is the Risk Worth the Reward? Eyal Mor, Dan Assaf, Shanie Shemla, Eytan Ben-Ami, Danielle Mor-Hadar, Mirit Halfon, Shachar Laks, David Hazzan, Daria Perelson, Douglas Zippel, Almog Ben-Yaacov, Aviram Nissan, and Mohammad Adileh 914
        Access to Results of Patient Reported Outcome Surveys Does Not Improve Survey Response Rates. Sudheer Vemuru, Shelby Smith, Kathryn Colborn, Victoria Huynh, Laura Leonard, Levi Bonnell, Laura Scherer, Dan Matlock, Clara Lee, Simon Kim, and Sarah Tevis 945
        Does Primary Tumor Resection Induce Accelerated Metastasis in Breast Cancer? A Review. Yile Jiao and Qing Lv 1005
        Single Versus Dual Surgeon Approaches to Oncoplastic Surgery: A Comparison of Outcomes. Manish M. Karamchandani, Gabriel De La Cruz Ku, Kerry A. Gaffney, Carly Wareham, Sarah M. Persing, Christopher Homsy, Salvatore Nardello, and Abhishek Chatterjee 1064
        Palliative Care and Characterization of Symptoms in Patients Undergoing Cytoreductive Surgery/Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy. Abigail P. Sneider, Ankit Dhiman, Divya Sood, Cecilia Ong, Sandy Tun, Monica Malec, Stacie Levine, Kiran K. Turaga, and Oliver S. Eng 1154

        Thoracic Surgery

        Robotic-Assisted Minimally Invasive Esophagectomy: Postoperative Outcomes in a Nationwide Cohort. Kevin M. Turner, Aaron M. Delman, Keilan Johnson, Sameer H. Patel, Gregory C. Wilson, Shimul A. Shah, and Robert M. Van Haren 152
        Clinical T2N0M0 Esophageal Cancer—Is Treatment Pathway Associated With Overall Survival? Wanyan Ma, Brandon Nuckles, Katie Frank, Katelyn A. Young, Rebecca L. Hoffman, and Joseph A. Blansfield 205
        Modeling the COVID Pandemic: Do Delays in Surgery Justify Using Stereotactic Radiation to Treat Low-Risk Early Stage Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer? Lifen Cao, Philip A. Linden, Tithi Biswas, Stephanie G. Worrell, Jillian N. Sinopoli, Megan E. Miller, Robert Shenk, Alberto J. Montero, and Christopher W. Towe 532
        Association Between the Modified Frailty Index and Outcomes Following Lobectomy. Bryce M. Bludevich, Isabel Emmerick, Karl Uy, Mark Maxfield, Arlene S. Ash, Jennifer Baima, and Feiran Lou 559
        Heterogeneity and Clinical Effect of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Primary Lung and Brain Metastases of Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer. Shuonan Xu, Jianfei Zhu, Daixing Zhong, Wenchen Wang, Yinsheng Wen, Lanjun Zhang, and Tao Jiang 674
        Early Water Seal of Chest Tubes Following Video-Assisted Thoracic Surgery Pleurodesis. Grant Wagner, Ammar Asban, Rongbing Xie, Leah Schoel, Zachary Burns, James Donahue, and Benjamin Wei 1033
        Rural–Urban Disparities in Receipt of Surgery for Potentially Resectable Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer. Charles D. Logan, Joe Feinglass, Amy L. Halverson, Dalya Durst, Kalvin Lung, Samuel Kim, Ankit Bharat, Ryan P. Merkow, David J. Bentrem, and David D. Odell 1053
        Wedge Resection Versus Segmentectomy for Older Patients With Stage IA Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer. Camille Mathey-Andrews, Alexandra L. Potter, Shivaek Venkateswaran, John Z. Deng, Alexis J. Alvillar, Mong-Wei Lin, Hugh G. Auchincloss, and Chi-Fu Jeffrey Yang 1133

        Transplantation and Immunology

        Despite Increasing Costs, Perfusion Machines Expand the Donor Pool of Livers and Could Save Lives. Thomas J. Handley, Katherine D. Arnow, and Marc L. Melcher 42
        Alpha-1-Antitrypsin Protects Vascular Grafts of Brain-Dead Rats Against Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury. Qingwei Ding, Sivakkanan Loganathan, Pengyu Zhou, Alex Ali Sayour, Paige Brlecic, Tamás Radovits, Roxane Domain, Brice Korkmaz, Matthias Karck, Gábor Szabó, and Sevil Korkmaz-Icöz 953
        Hepatitis B in Heart Transplant Donors and Recipients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Colin C. Yost, Diana C. Jimenez, Matthew P. Weber, Elizabeth J. Maynes, Katherine A. Belden, Vakhtang Tchantchaleishvili, H. Todd Massey, David A. Sass, J. Eduardo Rame, John J. Zurlo, and Nana Aburjania 1078

        Vascular Surgery

        Predictors of 30-Day Stroke and Death After Transcarotid Revascularization. Katherin Leckie, Akiko Tanaka, Hanaa Dakour-Aridi, Raghu L. Motaganahalli, Mitchell J. George, Arash Keyhani, Kourosh Keyhani, and S. Keisin Wang 146
        Retrospective Analysis of Complications After Gonadal Vein Interventions for Pelvic Venous Disorder. Sergey G. Gavrilov, Nadezhda Yu. Mishakina, Alexey V. Vasilyiev, and Konstantin V. Kirsanov 249
        Frailty Index (mFI-5) Predicts Resource Utilization After Nonruptured Endovascular Aneurysm Repair. Naveen Balasundaram, Isaiah Chandra, Vishruth Thaghalli Sunilkumar, Shubham Kanake, Jonathan Bath, and Todd R. Vogel 507
        Performance of the Emergency Surgery Score in Nonelective Lower-Extremity Endovascular Procedures. Naveen Balasundaram, Sadhvika Ramji, Riley D. Burgon, Mahilet Assefa, Isaiah Chandra, and Todd R. Vogel 619
        Characteristics Associated With Failure to Rescue After Open Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair. Maraya Camazine, Jonathan Bath, Priyanka Singh, Robin L. Kruse, and Todd R. Vogel 683
        Effect of Butylphthalide Capsules on Smac and XIAP Expression in Rats After Ischemia Reperfusion. Ruping Xiang, Juan Xu, Huiyun Yu, Yujuan Huang, Zhi Li, Cheng Yu, Li Wang, Min Fu, and Qiong Chen 1038

        Wound Healing

        Hyperdry Human Amniotic Membrane as a Protective Dressing for Open Wounds With Exposed Bowel in Mice. Koji Amano, Motonori Okabe, Toshiko Yoshida, Jiro Oba, Satoshi Yoshida, Masahiro Wakasugi, Akihiro Usui, Yasuki Nakata, and Hiroshi Okudera 898