Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHP) is common in end-stage renal disease and may progress to persistent post-transplant hyperparathyroidism (PTHP) following renal transplantation (RT). We sought to describe the frequency and determine factors associated with the incidence of PTHP for patients undergoing RT at a single institution that restricts RT for patients with uncontrolled SHP with a parathyroid hormone (PTH) of >800pg/mL at time of initial transplant evaluation.
We conducted a single-institution retrospective study of adults undergoing index RT from 2012 to 2020 who had a calcium and PTH level within 12 mo prior to RT and at least 6 mo following RT. PTHP was defined as calcium of >10 mg/dL with an elevated PTH > 88pg/mL at six or more months following RT. Univariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression were performed for factors associated with developing PTHP.
We identified 1110 patients with RT, 65 were excluded for prior RT, 549 did not have a pre-RT and post-RT calcium, and PTH laboratories for inclusion, yielding 496 for analysis. Following RT, 39 patients (7.9%) developed PTHP, compared to those who did not develop PTHP; these patients had significantly higher pre-RT PTH, pre-RT calcium, and frequency of calcimimetic therapy. In multivariable logistic regression factors significantly associated with PTHP were pre-RT calcium of more than 10 mg/dL with an odds ratio (OR) of 3.57 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.52-8.39, P = 0.003) and pre-RT calcimimetic therapy with an OR 1.30 (95% CI 1.06-2.85, P = 0.041). Compared with patients who had a pre-RT PTH of less than 200 pg/mL, a PTH of 200-399 pg/mL increased risk of PTHP with an OR of 4.52 (95% CI 1.95-21.5, P = 0.048) and a PTH of > 400 pg/mL increased risk of PTHP with an OR of 7.17 (95% CI 1.47-34.9, P = 0.015). In this cohort, 11 patients (28.2%) with PTHP underwent parathyroidectomy (PTx) at a mean of 1.4 y post-RT (standard deviation 0.87).
For patients required to have a PTH < 800pg/mL for initial transplant candidacy, the subsequent incidence of PTHP is relatively low at 7.9%. Risk factors for PTHP include higher pre-RT calcium and PTH levels and pre-RT calcimimetic therapy. PTx remains underused in the treatment of PTHP. Further study is warranted to determine the optimal PTH cutoff for transplant candidacy and recommendation for PTx in patients requiring calcimimetic therapy for SHP.
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Published online: January 27, 2023
Accepted: December 24, 2022
Received in revised form: December 4, 2022
Received: March 2, 2022
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