Although the landmark MOMENTUM 3 trial was associated with excellent short-term left ventricular assist device (LVAD) outcomes, many end-stage heart failure patients would not have met the trial eligibility criteria. Moreover, the outcomes of trial ineligible patients are poorly characterized. Therefore, we undertook this study to compare MOMENTUM 3 eligible and ineligible patients.
We conducted a retrospective review of all primary LVAD implants from 2017 to 2022. Primary stratification was according to MOMENTUM 3 inclusion and exclusion criteria. Primary outcome was survival. Secondary outcomes included complications and length of stay. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were constructed to further characterize outcomes.
From 2017 to 2022, 96 patients underwent primary LVAD implantation. Thirty-seven (38.54%) patients were trial eligible while 59 (61.46%) were ineligible. When stratified by trial eligibility, patients who were trial eligible had higher 1-year (80.15% versus 94.52%, P = 0.04) and 2-year survival (70.17% versus 94.52%, P = 0.02). Multivariable analysis showed that trial eligibility was protective of mortality at both 1 y (HR: 0.19 [0.04-0.99], P = 0.049) and 2 y (HR: 0.17 [0.03-0.81], P = 0.03). Although the groups had similar rates of bleeding, stroke, and right ventricular failure, trial ineligibility was associated with a longer periprocedural length of stay.
In conclusion, the majority of contemporary LVAD patients would not have been eligible for the MOMENTUM 3 trial. Ineligible patients have decreased but acceptable short-term survival. Our findings suggest that a simply reductionist approach to short-term mortality may improve outcomes but fail to capture the majority of patients who could benefit from therapy.
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Published online: March 01, 2023
Accepted: January 28, 2023
Received in revised form: January 1, 2023
Received: September 20, 2022
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