Violent reinjury risk assessment instrument (VRRAI) for hospital-based violence intervention programsViolent injury is the second most common cause of death among 15- to 24-year olds in the US. Up to 58% of violently injured youth return to the hospital with a second violent injury. Hospital-based violence intervention programs (HVIPs) have been shown to reduce injury recidivism through intensive case management. However, no validated guidelines for risk assessment strategies in the HVIP setting have been reported. We aimed to use qualitative methods to investigate the key components of risk assessments employed by HVIP case managers and to propose a risk assessment model based on this qualitative analysis.
State-level geographic variation in prompt access to care for children after motor vehicle crashesMotor vehicle crashes (MVCs) are a principal cause of death in children; fatal MVCs and pediatric trauma resources vary by state. We sought to examine state-level variability in and predictors of prompt access to care for children in MVCs.
Then we all fall down: fall mortality by trauma center levelGround-level falls (GLFs) are the predominant mechanism of injury in US trauma centers and accompany a spectrum of comorbidities, injury severity, and physiologic derangement. Trauma center levels define tiers of capability to treat injured patients. We hypothesized that risk-adjusted observed-to-expected mortality (O:E) by trauma center level would evaluate the degree to which need for care was met by provision of care.
An anatomic risk model to screen post endovascular aneurysm repair patients for aneurysm sac enlargementFollow-up computed tomography angiography (CTA) scans add considerable postimplantation costs to endovascular aneurysm repairs (EVARs) of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). By building a risk model, we hope to identify patients at low risk for aneurysm sac enlargement to minimize unnecessary CTAs.
Musculoskeletal occupational injury among surgeons: effects for patients, providers, and institutionsThe aim of this study was to determine the risk of occupational musculoskeletal injury during a surgeon's career and the effects of these injuries for patients, providers, and institutions. We hypothesized that surgeons have occupational injuries, which affect work performance.
Pretreatment with sildenafil alleviates early lung ischemia-reperfusion injury in a rat modelLung ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury plays an important role in lung transplantation. Less well known is the role of sildenafil in lung I/R injury; therefore, we attempted to determine whether sildenafil could alleviate lung apoptosis and tissue injury in a rat model.
Repeatability of anorectal manometry in healthy volunteers and patientsAnorectal manometry is used extensively in the assessment of patients with disorders of the pelvic floor. The present study investigated the repeatability of anorectal manometry in healthy volunteers and patients.
Pepsin concentrations are elevated in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis after lung transplantationAspiration of gastroesophageal refluxate has been implicated in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and the progression of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome after lung transplantation. The goals of the present study were to identify lung transplant patients at the greatest risk of aspiration and to investigate the causative factors.
Hypercoagulability in response to elevated body temperature and central hypovolemiaCoagulation abnormalities contribute to poor outcomes in critically ill patients. In trauma patients exposed to a hot environment, a systemic inflammatory response syndrome, elevated body temperature, and reduced central blood volume occur in parallel with changes in hemostasis and endothelial damage. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether experimentally elevated body temperature and reduced central blood volume (CBV) per se affects hemostasis and endothelial activation.
CCN2 is transiently expressed by keratinocytes during re-epithelialization and regulates keratinocyte migration in vitro by the ras-MEK-ERK signaling pathwayCCN2 (previously known as connective tissue growth factor) is a multifunctional matricellular protein that has numerous effects on cell life and cell interactions with the connective tissue. Although the importance of CCN2 for the fibrotic process in wound healing has been well studied, the involvement of CCN2 in keratinocyte function has not yet been explored. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the role of CCN2 in the epidermis during wound healing.
Characterizing lobular carcinoma of the male breast using the SEER databaseLobular carcinoma of the male breast is rare. We sought to investigate the clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of men and women with lobular breast cancer, using a population-based database.
Protective effects of hydrogen sulfide in a rat model of traumatic brain injury via activation of mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate–sensitive potassium channels and reduction of oxidative stressHydrogen sulfide (H2S) is considered an important neuromodulator in the central nervous system. We designed the present study to investigate the effects of exogenous H2S in a rat model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and the mechanism(s) that underlie this effect.
Satellite cell functional alterations following cutaneous burn in rats include an increase in their osteogenic potentialSignificant consequences of severe burn include skeletal muscle atrophy and heterotopic ossification (HO). The cellular mechanisms underlying either of these conditions are not known. Whether the functionality of satellite cells stem cells resident in skeletal muscle is affected by changes in circulatory factors following burn was determined to better understand their role in atrophy and HO.
Sewed revascularization for arterialized liver transplantation in miceMouse models of liver transplantation are powerful tools for biomedical research. The cuff method is currently the most popular approach for revascularization of mouse liver grafts, as it is relatively easy to perform hence reducing the anhepatic time. However, the use of cuffs may induce a tissue reaction, causing chronic obstruction of anastomosed vessels, leading to portal hypertension. Here, we applied the suture technique for arterialized liver transplantation in mice.
Eritoran attenuates tissue damage and inflammation in hemorrhagic shock/traumaSevere injury and associated hemorrhagic shock lead to an inflammatory response and subsequent increased tissue damage. Numerous reports have shown that injury-induced inflammation and the associated end-organ damage is driven by Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation via damage-associated molecular patterns. We examined the effectiveness of Eritoran tetrasodium (E5564), an inhibitor of TLR4 function, in reducing inflammation induced during hemorrhagic shock with resuscitation (HS/R) or after peripheral tissue injury (bilateral femur fracture, BFF).
An in vitro study assessing the infection risk of low-cost polyethylene mosquito net compared with commercial hernia prostheticsThe innovative use of sterilized mosquito net as a cheaper alternative to commercial mesh for hernia repair has gained increasing recognition. Developing health care systems have inherently higher surgical site infection rates, and concerns regarding the introduction of untested prosthetic hernia meshes have been raised. This in vitro study assesses the infection risk of polyethylene (PE) mosquito net mesh compared with commercial hernia prosthetics by assessing the essential (first) step in the pathogenesis of mesh infections.
A novel rat model of osteonecrosis of the femoral head induced by periarticular injection of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 antibodyTraditional methods to establish animal model of osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) are not satisfactory because of the undefined underlying mechanism, low rate of the disease, and high incidence of mortality. The present study was to induce ONFH in a rat model through periarticular injection of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 2 antibody.
Effects of glycine, pyruvate, resveratrol, and nitrite on tissue injury and cytokine response in endotoxemic ratsGlycine, pyruvate, resveratrol, and nitrite are well-known protective compounds among others in ischemic tissue injury. Here, we compared their effects in acute lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced shock in rats to assess whether inhibition of the proinflammatory cytokine response is a prerequisite for their protective actions.
17β-Estradiol attenuates secondary injury through activation of Akt signaling via estrogen receptor alpha in rat brain following subarachnoid hemorrhageApoptosis is implicated in vasospasm and the long-term sequelae of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This study tested the hypothesis that attenuation of SAH-induced apoptosis after 17β-estradiol (E2) treatment is associated with an increase in phosphorylation of Akt via estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) in rats.
Efficient selection of Gal-knockout pig cells for somatic cell nuclear transferThe process of selecting transgenic cells has been one of the bottlenecks in the generation of transgenic animals by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). In particular, selection for the Gal double-knockout (Gal-DKO) genotype has been time consuming and inefficient. The objective of this work was to generate a highly efficient system to select Gal-DKO cells to be used in SCNT without affecting the efficiency in production of Gal-null pigs.
Anti-inflammatory effects of linalool in RAW 264.7 macrophages and lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury modelInflammation, characterized by redness, swelling, pain and a sensation of heat, is one of the body’s self-defense systems. Although the inflammation response has an important role in host survival, it also leads to chronic inflammatory diseases. Linalool is a natural compound of the essential oils in several aromatic plants species. It possesses anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and other bioactive properties. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of linalool on inflammation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and an LPS-induced in vivo lung injury model.
Participation of autophagy in lung ischemia–reperfusion injury in vivoIn response to stress, autophagy is activated and may present as a cell survival mechanism or lead to cell death. Although there has been some progress in studying the function of autophagy in the ischemia–reperfusion (I/R) injury of other organs, little is known about the role autophagy plays in lung I/R injury.
Intraoperative stress in cardiac surgery: Attendings versus residentsPerforming cardiac surgery is associated with stress for surgeons. We investigated stress levels of experienced surgeons and trainees during coronary artery bypass graft teaching procedures.
Predictive value of pleural and serum interleukin-6 levels for pneumonia and hypo-oxygenations after esophagectomyPulmonary complications after esophagectomy continue to be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Although several factors have been implicated to be associated with pulmonary complications after esophagectomy, the prediction of pulmonary complications remains a challenge. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of cytokine levels in sera and pleural drainage fluid for pneumonia and hypo-oxygenations following esophagectomy.
Force recovery and axonal regeneration of the sternomastoid muscle reinnervated with the end-to-end nerve anastomosisEnd-to-end nerve anastomosis (EEA) is a commonly used nerve repair technique. However, this method generally results in poor functional recovery. This study was designed to determine the correlation of functional recovery to the extent of axonal reinnervation after EEA procedure in a rat model.